Although geographical distance has become less relevant in co–authorship for monodisciplinary fields such as economics, mathematics, and physics, little is known about international collaboration in multidisciplinary fields such as higher education. This paper studies collaboration patterns in higher education research using the Scopus database with the application of the gravity model. The results show that the intensity of collaboration is negatively associated with geographical distance and positively associated with linguistic commonality but these findings differ significantly between various world regions. European scholars appear to give preference to linguistically proximate partners over geographical neighbours. Although English is the lingua franca in science, language is not a significant factor for the formation of collaboration for North American and Asian researchers. These findings have policy implications for fostering multidisciplinary research in international partnerships.
The Bologna reform, the largest European education reform, was implemented in Russia in 2011. The reform shortened the duration of some undergraduate programs by one year and compressed their curricula. Using a difference–in–differences design, I find that the reform had no short– or medium–term adverse effects on employment. Further, I find that null average effects on wages mask considerable heterogeneity: the reform did not impact the wages of females, while it decreased the wages of males. I argue that the reform led to differing wage outcomes for males and females due to differing relative returns to education and work experience.